5.3. DTLS connection using certificatesΒΆ

In Enabling secure communication section you learned how to use PSK to enable secure connection in Anjay using DTLS. In this section, we will show how to use certificates instead of PSK.

Preparing a LwM2M Client written using Anjay to use X.509 certificates requires essentially the same steps as using the PSK mode. However, it is very likely that you would like to load the certificates from files.

Note

The full code for the following example can be found in the examples/tutorial/AT-Certificates directory in Anjay sources.

All actual parsing is performed by the TLS backend library, so it is enough to just load contents of certificate files in DER format into memory. The code from listing below is based on Installing mandatory Objects example and highlights the modified parts.

#include <anjay/anjay.h>
#include <anjay/attr_storage.h>
#include <anjay/security.h>
#include <anjay/server.h>
#include <avsystem/commons/avs_log.h>

#include <string.h>

static int
load_buffer_from_file(uint8_t **out, size_t *out_size, const char *filename) {
    FILE *f = fopen(filename, "rb");
    if (!f) {
        avs_log(tutorial, ERROR, "could not open %s", filename);
        return -1;
    }
    int result = -1;
    if (fseek(f, 0, SEEK_END)) {
        goto finish;
    }
    long size = ftell(f);
    if (size < 0 || (unsigned long) size > SIZE_MAX || fseek(f, 0, SEEK_SET)) {
        goto finish;
    }
    *out_size = (size_t) size;
    if (!(*out = (uint8_t *) avs_malloc(*out_size))) {
        goto finish;
    }
    if (fread(*out, *out_size, 1, f) != 1) {
        avs_free(*out);
        *out = NULL;
        goto finish;
    }
    result = 0;
finish:
    fclose(f);
    if (result) {
        avs_log(tutorial, ERROR, "could not read %s", filename);
    }
    return result;
}

// Installs Security Object and adds and instance of it.
// An instance of Security Object provides information needed to connect to
// LwM2M server.
static int setup_security_object(anjay_t *anjay) {
    if (anjay_security_object_install(anjay)) {
        return -1;
    }

    anjay_security_instance_t security_instance = {
        .ssid = 1,
        .server_uri = "coaps://try-anjay.avsystem.com:5684",
        .security_mode = ANJAY_SECURITY_CERTIFICATE
    };

    int result = 0;

    if (load_buffer_from_file(
                (uint8_t **) &security_instance.public_cert_or_psk_identity,
                &security_instance.public_cert_or_psk_identity_size,
                "client_cert.der")
            || load_buffer_from_file(
                       (uint8_t **) &security_instance.private_cert_or_psk_key,
                       &security_instance.private_cert_or_psk_key_size,
                       "client_key.der")
            || load_buffer_from_file(
                       (uint8_t **) &security_instance.server_public_key,
                       &security_instance.server_public_key_size,
                       "server_cert.der")) {
        result = -1;
        goto cleanup;
    }

    // Anjay will assign Instance ID automatically
    anjay_iid_t security_instance_id = ANJAY_ID_INVALID;
    if (anjay_security_object_add_instance(anjay, &security_instance,
                                           &security_instance_id)) {
        result = -1;
    }

cleanup:
    avs_free((uint8_t *) security_instance.public_cert_or_psk_identity);
    avs_free((uint8_t *) security_instance.private_cert_or_psk_key);
    avs_free((uint8_t *) security_instance.server_public_key);

    return result;
}

// Installs Server Object and adds and instance of it.
// An instance of Server Object provides the data related to a LwM2M Server.
static int setup_server_object(anjay_t *anjay) {
    if (anjay_server_object_install(anjay)) {
        return -1;
    }

    const anjay_server_instance_t server_instance = {
        // Server Short ID
        .ssid = 1,
        // Client will send Update message often than every 60 seconds
        .lifetime = 60,
        // Disable Default Minimum Period resource
        .default_min_period = -1,
        // Disable Default Maximum Period resource
        .default_max_period = -1,
        // Disable Disable Timeout resource
        .disable_timeout = -1,
        // Sets preferred transport to UDP
        .binding = "U"
    };

    // Anjay will assign Instance ID automatically
    anjay_iid_t server_instance_id = ANJAY_ID_INVALID;
    if (anjay_server_object_add_instance(anjay, &server_instance,
                                         &server_instance_id)) {
        return -1;
    }

    return 0;
}

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
    if (argc != 2) {
        avs_log(tutorial, ERROR, "usage: %s ENDPOINT_NAME", argv[0]);
        return -1;
    }

    const anjay_configuration_t CONFIG = {
        .endpoint_name = argv[1],
        .in_buffer_size = 4000,
        .out_buffer_size = 4000,
        .msg_cache_size = 4000
    };

    anjay_t *anjay = anjay_new(&CONFIG);
    if (!anjay) {
        avs_log(tutorial, ERROR, "Could not create Anjay object");
        return -1;
    }

    int result = 0;
    // Install Attribute storage and setup necessary objects
    if (anjay_attr_storage_install(anjay) || setup_security_object(anjay)
            || setup_server_object(anjay)) {
        result = -1;
    }

    if (!result) {
        result = anjay_event_loop_run(
                anjay, avs_time_duration_from_scalar(1, AVS_TIME_S));
    }

    anjay_delete(anjay);
    return result;
}

Note

anjay_security_object_add_instance() copies the buffers present in the anjay_security_instance_t structure into the internal state of the security module, so it is safe to release the memory allocated by the file loading routine.